How Do Nuclear Weapons Kill

Atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter. They are very tiny structures that include various combinations of three particles known as protons, neutrons, and electrons. Each atom has a nucleus (plural: nuclei), which is composed of neutrons and protons in close proximity. The majority of nuclei are highly stable, which means that the composition of their neutrons and protons is largely constant and unchanging.

Although the likelihood of such an assault remains low, Ingram emphasized the need of not only providing leadership, but also preparing critical services such as food, housing, drinking water, and electricity - as well as telecommunications, in case they need to be maintained or restored.

What would occur in the event of a nuclear war?

Nuclear weapons' consequences

Nuclear weapons are fundamentally different from conventional weapons due to the enormous amount of explosive energy they may unleash and the impacts they induce, such as high temperatures and radiation. The immediate consequences of a nuclear explosion and fallout are well understood based on data collected from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki strikes in Japan; over 500 atmospheric and over 1,500 subterranean nuclear tests done worldwide; and considerable calculations and computer modeling. The long-term impacts on human health and the environment are unknown, but have been intensively investigated. The effects of a nuclear explosion are complex and vary according to a variety of factors, including the weapon's design (fission or fusion) and yield; whether the detonation occurs in the air (and at what altitude), on the surface, underground, or underwater; meteorological and environmental conditions; and whether the target is urban, rural, or military.

After arriving in Hiroshima on 29 August 1945, the ICRC's Fritz Bilfinger sent a terrifying message to the Tokyo office: âcity wiped away, 80% of hospitals destroyed or severely damaged; examined two emergency hospitals, conditions beyond descriptionâ. The Japanese Red Cross, which started treating sufferers the day after the explosion, continues to treat several thousand individuals each year for cancers and other ailments caused by the 1945 atomic blasts. The survivors, or hibakusha in Japan, are among the most outspoken voices drawing attention to the magnitude and scope of the devastation inflicted by nuclear bombs. ICRC telegram dated 30 August 1945 from Fritz Bilfinger. (International Committee of the Red Cross Archives, B G 008/76-X)

How Do Nuclear Bombs Kill

Between 1945 and 1980, around 500 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests were conducted at different locations throughout the globe. Numerous studies were conducted as public knowledge and concern about the potential health concerns linked with nuclear fallout developed. According to a research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nuclear fallout may have resulted in an additional 11,000 fatalities, the majority of which were caused by thyroid cancer connected to exposure to iodine-131. Individuals who are involved with nuclear weapons

Perhaps you have a mental image of what a post-nuclear hellscape might look like. After all, catastrophe films are preoccupied with a world like that. However, physicists and other nuclear professionals are passionate about this problem as well, and their study indicates that the films may be too hopeful. Alan Robock, a professor of environmental sciences at Rutgers University, has spent decades studying the effects of nuclear war on the earth. His work, as well as those of his colleagues, is founded on economic, scientific, and agricultural models.

To assist people see how a nuclear attack might effect major cities worldwide, nuclear weapons historian Alex Wellerstein built the interactive program NukeMap, which enables users to simulate the repercussions depending on adjustable inputs. Using updated Cold War-era models of nuclear explosions, Wellerstein's simulator can estimate the amount of fatalities and injuries caused by a nuclear weapon in any location, large or small. The data is intended to be "evocative, not final," he stated on the simulation website, owing to the difficulty of modeling nuclear assaults. The following graphics, developed using Wellerstein's modeling program, illustrate how each of the six cities Redlener mentioned might be impacted by a 15-kiloton detonation similar to the one unleashed over Hiroshima during WWII.

In fission weapons, a large quantity of fissile material, either enriched uranium or plutonium, is assembled into a supercritical massâthe minimum amount of material required to initiate an exponentially increasing nuclear chain reaction. This is performed by either firing one piece of sub-critical material into another, referred to as the âgunâ technique, or by compressing a sub-critical sphere of material to many times its original density using chemical explosives, referred to as the âimplosionâ method. The implosion process is more complicated than the gun approach and can only be utilized using plutonium as the fissile material. The intrinsic radioactivity of uranium then releases a neutron, which collides with another 235U atom to form the unstable uranium-236, which fissions, emits further neutrons, and repeats the process. The uranium atom may divide in a variety of ways as long as the atomic weights total up to 236. (uranium plus the extra neutron). The following equation illustrates one potential splitting, namely into strontium-95 (95Sr), xenon-139 (139Xe), and two neutrons (n), plus energy:

How Does Nuclear Weapons Kill

To demonstrate how ridiculous 'nuclear weapons' became, here is an early 1960s video of US President John F. Kennedy's brother Robert Kennedy watching a 'nuclear weapons' blast from a folding chair a short distance downrange. He was watching the detonation of the small 30kg or so 'nuclear bomb in an artillery shell', the 'Davy Crockett'. Ten nations have claimed to possess nuclear weapons in all, and this is the most frightening aspect of the deception, since it demonstrates how major international governments conspire. Stalin's Soviet Union was the first to join, surreptitiously pushed up by the profit-hungry US military machine, which, as Antony Sutton documented long ago, desired to have 'The Best Enemy Money Can Buy.' The following is a short history of 'nuclear weapons' hoaxes:

Nuclear fusion is a process in which light nuclei fuse at very high temperatures to generate heavier atoms. Hydrogen bombs, which are based on nuclear fusion, are more destructive and efficient than atomic bombs. The process is frequently referred to as a thermonuclear explosion due to the high temperatures required to initiate a nuclear fusion reaction. This is commonly accomplished using hydrogen isotopes (deuterium and tritium), which combine to generate Helium atoms. This resulted in the coinage of the phrase âhydrogen bombâ for the deuterium-tritium fusion weapon.

On December 5, 1965, an A-4E Skyhawk carrying a one-megaton thermonuclear warhead slid off the deck of the USS Ticonderoga and into the Pacific Ocean. The aircraft, Douglas Webster, the pilot, and the weapon all sunk in 16,000 feet of water and were never discovered. It was not until 15 years later that the US Navy disclosed that the accident occurred within 80 miles from Japan's Ryuku island group, causing outrage in Japan, which forbids the import of nuclear weapons. During the mid-1960s, the Soviet nuclear-powered icebreaker Lenin had issues with its nuclear reactors, perhaps resulting in a meltdown, in the Kara Sea. It was compelled to abandon the reactors, which have never been located.

The United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, the People's Republic of China, India, Pakistan, and North Korea all possess nuclear weapons. Although Israel denies possessing nuclear weapons, it is widely thought to possess nuclear energy. There is an abundance of proof on several occasions that Israel has nuclear weapons. It is reported to possess at least 80 warheads, which is comparable to the nuclear arsenals of India and Pakistan (Broger, 2014). Worldwide, there are roughly 23,000 nuclear weapons, of which around 2,500 are deemed operationally ready for deployment. This stockpile is sufficient to absorb the planet's whole human population many times over (McCluskey, 2010). There is considerable anxiety in the Middle East about the nuclear status of the region. Egypt is one of many nations that have threatened to withdraw from the Non-Proliferation Treaty unless tangible progress is made toward establishing a nuclear-free zone in the Middle East. The western nations pledged to host a meeting in 2012, but it was cancelled partly at America's insistence, in order to alleviate Israel's pressure to attend and expose its nuclear arsenal.

How Do Nuclear Bombs Kill You

The specter of the nuclear bomb hung over everyone and everything. Schools performed exercises simulating nuclear air raids. The governments constructed fallout shelters. In their backyards, homeowners dug shelters. Eventually, the nuclear powers found themselves in a state of stalemate. Both nations pursued a plan of mutual assured destruction, which meant that even if one country conducted a successful sneak attack that killed millions and caused enormous damage, the other nation would still have sufficient weapons to retaliate and exact an equally horrific revenge. While this heinous danger kept them from using nuclear weapons against one another, the prospect of a devastating nuclear war persisted. Tensions persisted throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Under President Ronald Reagan, the US pursued a plan of creating anti-missile defense technology âdubbed "Star Wars" by critics â that was designed to shield the US from attack, but might also have allowed the US to strike first with impunity. By the late 1980s, as the Soviet Union started to falter economically, Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev had begun a concerted effort to reduce nuclear armaments.

Nuclear weapons have been exploded over 2,000 times for testing and demonstration purposes since the atomic bombs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Only a few governments possess or are suspected of possessing such weapons. The only nations known to have exploded nuclear bombs and admitted to having them are the United States, the Soviet Union (which was followed as a nuclear power by Russia), the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, and North Korea (in chronological order of date of first test). Israel is thought to possess nuclear weapons, but does not recognize them due to a policy of purposeful ambiguity. Germany, Italy, Turkey, Belgium, and the Netherlands all possess nuclear weapons. South Africa is the only nation that produced nuclear weapons independently and then renounced and destroyed them. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty tries to contain the spread of nuclear weapons, although its efficacy has been questioned. Weapons modernisation has continuing to this day.

Los Alamos Laboratory (United States) developed a uranium-based weapon to strike Hiroshima in 1945. It is dubbed the âLittle Boyâ. On August 6, 1945, the bomb was dropped on Hiroshima by an aircraft flown by Colonel Paul Tibbets. This was the first nuclear weapon used in battle in history. The following are some of the weapon's specs. The bomb weighs 4.400 kg (9.700 lbs);

None of these are to be confused with dirty bombs, the true danger presented when low-tech entities such as terrorists get access to nuclear material. Rather of developing a nuclear weapon, they would attach a conventional explosive device to a sample of radioactive material and blow it up. This will not initiate a nuclear reaction, but it will contaminate broad regions by dispersing a radioactive chemical in an aerosol form. Although the destructive force is not high, the death toll might nevertheless be considerable in the years and decades after the explosion due to health concerns. For more in-depth coverage of today's greatest technology subjects, check out our ExtremeTech Explains series.

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