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Mongol Empire Map At Its Peak

Ogedai Khan, Genghis' son, finished the conquest of northern China, ushering in the end of the Jin Dynasty, and attacked Korea. In the west, his soldiers finished the conquest of the Persian Empire, annexing significant swaths of what is now Russia and pushing all the way to Hungary and Poland. Following Ogedai's death in 1241, a convoluted power struggle ensued; this may have spared Western Europe and other countries, since the Mongols were too preoccupied with battling one other to advance westward. Mngke Khan arose from the instability to govern from 1251 and 1259. He concentrated his efforts on consolidation rather than conquest, although he did capture Yunnan, the Tibetan Empire, and portions of Syria and Iraq.

The first invasion (1205â09) was intended at the Tangut kingdom of Hsi Hsia (Xi Xia), a Chinese frontier state in the northwest, and resulted in the Xi Xia ruler declaring allegiance. A further war was directed at north China, which was governed by the Tungusic Jin dynasty at the time. The Mongols conquered all area north of the Huang He (Yellow River) in 1215, and the Jin kingdom was limited to the function of a buffer state between the Mongols in the north and the Chinese Song empire in the south in the following years. Other campaigns against central Asia have been undertaken. In 1218, the empire annexed the Khara-Khitai kingdom in eastern Turkistan. Jiaohe A portion of the historic city of Jiaohe in China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The city was located on the historic Silk Road and was destroyed in the 13th century by Genghis Khan. /Fotolia/Valery Shanin

á á á ° yeke MongÎ3ol ulus (lit. 'nation of the great Mongols' or 'big Mongol nation') in Mongol or k1 4r uluÎ3 ulus (lit. 'entire great nation') in Turkic.

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Following the 1260–1264 succession struggle between Kublai Khan and his brother Ariq Bke, Kublai Khan's control was confined to the empire's eastern region, centered on China. On 18 December 1271, Kublai issued an imperial decree formally naming his kingdom Great Yuan (Dai Yuan, or Dai n Ulus) and establishing the Yuan dynasty. According to some accounts, the whole Mongolian name is Dai n Yehe Monggul Ulus. [17]

Another advantage the Mongols had was their capacity to travel great distances, especially during particularly harsh winters; for example, frozen rivers served as roads connecting them to big metropolitan areas on their banks. The Mongols were skilled in river crossing, having crossed the river Saj3 with thirty thousand cavalry men in a single night at the Battle of Mohi (April 1241) to defeat the Hungarian king Bla IV. Similarly, during the raid on the Muslim Khwarezmshah, a fleet of barges was utilized to obstruct his river retreat. [reference required] Historically renowned for their ground forces strength, the Mongols seldom used naval troops. They utilized seapower to conquer China's Song dynasty in the 1260s and 1270s, however their efforts to organize seaborne wars against Japan were unsuccessful. Their operations in the Eastern Mediterranean were almost entirely land-based, with the Crusader and Mamluk troops controlling the waters. [112]

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